Progesterone side effects include many unpleasant symptoms and dangerous conditions.
Nervous System and Muscular Effects
About thirty percent of users experience a headache, fifteen percent experience dizziness, and twenty percent experience back or joint pain. Other symptoms include increased sweating, nervous tremors, and speech disorders.
Depression and Sleep
Excess progesterone regulates estrogen receptors down. With fewer estrogen receptors, the brain cannot respond to the hormone in the normal way. Its response to estrogen is needed for serotonin production. While this one of the many progesterone side effects is desirable for those who have insomnia, and many use natural progesterone as a sleep-aid as a result, the lack of serotonin can also cause depression.
Genitourinary and Gastrointestinal Progesterone Side Effects
Twenty-five percent of patients experience some breast tenderness that tends to subside with time, and ten percent experience vaginal discharge. Twenty percent of women will experience abdominal pain and a small number experience bloating, diarrhea and nausea. These GI symptoms are often attributable to activation of systemic candida.
Excess progesterone can block the conversion of testosterone to DHT causing a lowered sex drive. This primarily happens to men.
Water retention is likely caused by excess conversion to deoxycortisone, a mineralocorticoid made in the adrenal glands which cause water retention. Those who are prone to the estrogenic effect may also be susceptible to this.
Increased Androgen and Estrogen
Excessive progesterone can also lead to the increase in androgen production and ultimately increase estrogen as the body shunts the excessive progesterone to these other hormones. Estrogen dominance symptoms can emerge, both in males or females.
Low Immune Function
Cellular immunity is an important part of our overall immune system that protects us from viral infections. This is in contrast to bacterial infections that are attacked by macrophages or neutrophils from the innate arm of the immune system. Excessive progesterone suppresses the cellular immune system involving T and B lymphocytes. Upper respiratory infections increases, with more cold and flu-like symptoms.
Miscellaneous progesterone side effects can include:
- Dry, chapped, itchy skin
- Transient visual disturbances
- Hearing difficulties
- Runaway appetite
- Weight gain
- Unusual headaches
- Male pattern baldness
- Dry hair
- Frequency and urgency in urination
- Extreme thirst
- Gynecomastia and nipple soreness
- Lymph node congestion, especially at groin
- Armpit smell
- Lower extremity edema
- Liver ache
- Cough and weak lung
- Heart palpitations
Progesterone Side Effects and Liver
Topical progesterone provides a seamless delivery of the hormone into the bloodstream. This delivery method prevents the complications associated with oral progesterone replacement, which gets processed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver. Because over 80 percent of natural progesterone is metabolized by its first pass through the liver, a much higher dose is required for oral delivery as compared to topical methods.
Anyone with liver pathology either clinical or sub-clinical is at risk with high dose progesterone. Those who have normal liver function according to laboratory tests, but who have sub-clinical and possibly unrecognized liver congestion, are also at risk for progesterone side effects.
While topically progesterone is better compared to oral for those with hepatic constraints, it is not without its own problems. When progesterone cream is administered through the skin, most of it goes into the bloodstream, but some also build up and accumulates in the subcutaneous fat layer. With long-term use, a cumulative saturation effect can result. The body’s self-regulation process is automatically activated, and the body initiates a down-regulation of progesterone receptors, making them more resistant to activation. This is the body’s way of rejecting excessive progesterone in the system. The effectiveness of the progesterone is therefore reduced. Unfortunately, precursors of progesterone such as pregnenolone are shunted to make DHEA, testosterone, and estrogen instead, thus creating a different set of problems as these other hormone levels rise.
Instead of lowering natural progesterone, a frequent clinical mistake is to do just the reverse – increase progesterone in order to “normalize” laboratory values.
As the body is subjected to more progesterone, the liver has to work harder and harder, as it has the burden of having to metabolize and detoxify excessive amounts of that hormone. In turn, this puts more stress on the adrenal glands. This vicious cycle only makes matter worse.
As mentioned above, progesterone is a precursor to many other important hormones. Excessive Progesterone side effects over time can trigger imbalances of other hormones including estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, and cortisol by a variety of mechanisms. These include shunting, “stealing”, and down-regulation processes. Those with pre-existing adrenal fatigue in advanced stages are most at risk due to already weakened pathway integrity in the adrenals where they are regulated.
Clinical symptoms that arise from excessive Progesterone side effects can include a hyper adrenal function similar to Cushing’s Disease. Symptoms of high cortisol include hypertension, insomnia, memory loss, feeling hot, edema, irritability, anxiety, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance, increased thirst, and increased urination. Fortunately, this is rare. Such hyper-cortisol symptoms can be fleeting, often lasting only for a short time.
The body’s self-regulatory system usually will be triggered to rebalance the hormones and return itself to the normal state. For some, that works. For a small number of people, the body overshoots and enters a state of low cortisol output, similar to Addison’s Disease. This low cortisol results in symptoms that include: extreme fatigue, lymph stagnation, salt craving, low energy, low blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and muscle pain. These symptoms also can be fleeting in nature, only lasting a short time. Then the body reverts to the previous high cortisol state. The body is constantly in a state of extreme fluctuation like a yo-yo.
This is clinically referred to as brittle adrenals. The pattern resembles that of a roller-coaster ride that can occur multiple times during the day. The body is drained nutritionally and hormonally in its effort to effect self-rebalancing. Over time, the body is unable to adjust and becomes destabilized. The HPA axis by this time is dysregulated. The body has lost its ability to self-regulate and fine tune itself in terms of cortisol output. It is like taking a shower with alternating hot and cold water that is beyond one’s control – but never the desired warm water.
Ultimately, such extreme swings in cortisol output also destabilize the body’s metabolic pathways. Blood sugar regulation becomes problematic, and electrolyte imbalance follows along with fluid dysregulation. Like a light switch that has been flipped on and off multiple times continuously – eventually it breaks. The body is unable to adjust in a timely manner to provide the cushion to handle the extreme hormonal variance. The effort drains the body and resilience is reduced. Such hormonal swings between two extremes, the high cortisol state and the low cortisol state, is a nightmare in the making. This is similar to brittle diabetes, where a person’s blood sugar can quickly go from high to low for no apparent reason.